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19/4/2011

A que no conoces las ONDAS MARTENOT ???

Se trata de un instrumento electrónico, al igual que el Theremin (si no sabes lo que es te lo cuento aquí), creado en 1928 por el ingeniero galo Maurice Martenot, quien también era violonchelista y compositor. Durante la segunda guerra mundial Maurice desempeñó el papel de operador de radio, donde se percató de que al sintonizar dos equipos en similar frecuencia se producía un "molesto" sonido, al cual decidió dotar de un uso musical. Él mismo fue el encargado de presentar al mundo su creación, lo hizo en el conservatorio de París interpretando una pieza de Dmitrios Levidis.

Aunque parece simplemente un piano moderno que suena a banda sonora de peli antigua, las Ondas Martenot en realidad son el producto de un generador de frecuencia (con una cámara de difusión para la resonancia), un altavoz, un difusor secundario (es una modificación de un  altavoz) y dos formas de indicar que frecuencia queremos que suene: un teclado y un anillo unido a un cordel, el cual moviendo de derecha a izquierda, paralelamente a las teclas del teclado, nos permite modular con la mano derecha la frecuencia del sonido emitido. Como vemos, solo puede reproducir una sola nota a la vez, nada de acordes (es un instrumento monofónico). La mano izquierda presiona una especie de botón que regula la amplitud o volumen del sonido. Si queréis ver una clara demostración de su timbre y modo de empleo:



El "French Connection" del guitarrista de Radiohead
Este curioso instrumento ha sido empleado en la creación de bandas sonoras para diferentes películas y constituye el eje de las composiciones de numerosos artistas: Olivier Messiaen, Pierre Boulez, Edgar Varèse... Pero sin duda, dos de los más conocidos son el compositor francés Yann Tiersen (conocido, en gran medida, por escribir la banda sonora del film "Amelie") y Jonny Greenwood, guitarrista de Radioheadquien asustado por los daños que pudiera sufrir el instrumento en las giras mandó construir una pequeña y modificada versión de este que recibe el nombre de "French Connection". Os dejo un vídeo de cada uno de estos dos músicos en plena acción, para haceros una idea de como se puede utilizar el cacharrito dentro de una canción.



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